The basis of any drone is the engines mounted on the frame and the flight controller that controls their work.
In order to gain altitude the drone builds up speed on all engines. For forward flight, the front propellers start spinning with less thrust than the rear ones, due to which movement occurs. Similarly, there is a flight back, left and right. To turn the device to the right, you need to increase the speed of the left-side screws, and the right-side screws – to reduce the same.
By the number of engines, the drones are divided into groups: tricopter, quadrocopter, hexacopter, and octocopter.
Three engines, as a rule, are located at the ends of the Y-shaped frame. These are the simplest and cheapest multicopters. This is where their merits end: their flight is unstable, the weight of the payload is small. With the refusal of at least one engine, they fall to the ground and break – however, as well as quadrocopters.
Sometimes this group includes vehicles with six engines on the frame of the same shape – then the engines are arranged in two rows, one above the other. This allows you to increase the lifting force, but does not solve the problem of instability.
Four engines, which in the classic version are located on a square frame. The payload increases by one third compared to the same tricopter. The flight of quadrocopters is more stable and long-lasting (due to the capacity of a more powerful).
Six engines are fixed on the N-shaped or Z-shaped frame. The design reaches a fairly large size. The payload weight increases even more. Like octocopters, they can fly even with a failed engine.
The most common among drones are quadrocopters. Devices with a large number of engines (8 in octcopters, 10, etc.) are not widely used for three reasons:
- the more engines are installed, the larger the structure is obtained;
- they require a large amount of energy, and any battery on them is quickly discharged;
- with the increase in the number of engines increases the cost of the drone.